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The old city of Izmir (Smyrna) and surface area of ​​approximately one hundred acres of the bay which is located in the northeast was built on an islet. During the last centuries, the river Meles Sipvlos (Yamanlar) brought floods from the mountain, and the half-island with the shaft of a hill was today turned into a plain of Bornova. Monopoly on the mound now called Tepekule Directorate of İzmir Wine and Beer Factory, there are sample bond. Since 1955, this intense environment of slum which is identified as the first settlement in Izmir Izmir, has Mound. The first excavations of the Turkish Historical Society Directorate General of Antiquities and Museums of "contribution has been great. These are usually the first settlements in the West coast of Asia Minor founded after the Trojan Wars, Aeolic, Ionic and Doric origin, was founded on small peninsulas. These Çandarlı, Foca, Izmir, Klazomenai, settlements, such as Miletus and Iasos. This is because the people living in settlements established and that they more than Hellenli and. Thus, inhabitants of the peninsula and had two harbors, as well as assurance against future attacks were in the black sea. If unfavorable weather conditions are not suitable port for sailors the chance to use the other port would have. Flagged in the northeast corner of the bay Mound, north of the steep rocky mountains Yamanlar comfortable taking a position against attacks from land. Southern imbata clear. Approximately 3000 years old Izmir settlement took place on the peninsula. BC 4. Today because of the large population growth in the second half of the century, moved to the foothills of Kadifekale. Smurne old Ionic dialect, the word origin of the name IZMIR Izmir, Attica (Athens) dialect written as the Smryna. Smirne today in the form of the Hellenes pronounce the name of this city, though in recent years in the vicinity of the ancient city of Ephesus There is evidence of that name referred to a village settlement. Izmir, Ephesus, probably in the village to put some thought Amazon queen settled in the name of the ancient Greek sources, we also found information about it. However, the word is not Greek in Smyrna, Aegean Region, such as a name of a settlement of Anatolian origin. BC 2, get some tablets uncovered texts of the early settlement of the Kayseri Kültece behalf Tismurna seen. Tismurna'daki `ti 'and possibly a prefix indicates the name of a person or a place. It flagged the Hellenes, or mound of those who inhabited the city threw the prefix 'Smurna' they said. The city's name probably BC 300C and BC Between 1800 was known as Smurnu. IZMIR OF THE BRONZE AGE (3000-1050 BC) settlement of İzmir, although the former BC Since 3000 the most recent excavations also currently much more BC uzanmaktaysa back There has until around 3000. The first inhabitants of Izmir houses the light of information obtained from the excavations of the mound at the top level between 3 and 5 meters above sea level on the rock foundation. It belongs to the first period of the Early Bronze Age settlement. Period and the culture of pottery and in Troy (3000 BC-2500) shows similarities. Layer of the first settlement took place on the Middle Bronze Age period. Here, the ceramic works is almost identical to artistic works set out in the city of Troy II (2500-2000 BC). Troy VI and Hittite settlement period coincides with the third floor (BC1800-1ü50). This is a large and robust from the vase on the floor, in the south of the cities of Afyon and Usak containers obtained from the excavations of Beyce çeşidindendir Sultan. In addition, many container formats as far as Central Anatolia and similarities with Troy VI cap leakage. Furthermore, the light of day again, Troy VI, the `Minyas' type vases also discussed Bayraklý past, the 4-5 is a fragment of Mycenaean pottery. Extensive information about the small houses could not be obtained because of the drillings. Bronze Age of the language of the indigenous people living in Izmir have not been able to get any ideas. `Minyas' type to pass addressed pottery, as well as in many Anatolian cities, where the 2 Akalılâra per thousand (Achaioi: Mycenaean) can give clues to the presence of the colony trade. IRON AGE Age of the Hittites {M, Ö. 1800-1200) writing in Anatolia at that time was used, and therefore reached the age bulunuluyordu date. However, BC Troy VII and the 1200s after the collapse of the Hittite capital Hattusas tribes from the Balkans and Central and Western Anatolia in a dark era of re-unwritten, entered the Iron Age. Iron Age kingdom in Anatolia M.Ö.730 Cide is the reuse of paper, while the rest of Central and Western Anatolia, BC Took up to 650 years, from large amounts of pottery products are understood by the excavations of Iron Age migrating along the old Izmir Hellas, and the Ionians lived Aiolller. If any evidence was found that indigenous people have lived on the peninsula. BC flagged mound Hellas is understood that the settlement originated in 1050 began to be established. During the period continued for 400 years, these primitive times were five major settlement. These are: I. Aeolic settlement (1050 BC-M.Ö.1000) II. Early, Middle and Late Protogeometric settlement (BC 1000-BC. 875) III. Early and Middle Geometric settlement (875 BC - 750 BC) IV. Late Geometric settlement (BC 750-BC. 675) V. Subgeometrik settlement (BC 675-BC. 650) 6.40 meters above the sea in question starts with five layers and a layer thickness of 9.50 meters, is the recent finding of 3 meters. Pottery from the excavations Submyken Aeolic origin. Protogeometric and the Geometric style of pottery ware is generally a continuation of the Attica vazoculuğunun say. During the Iron Age houses in Izmir, was composed of large and small, single-room structures. BC's oldest house unearthed To 925 BC Dated to 900. Uncovered well preserved in this one-bedroom house (2.45 x 4 m.) Mud-brick walls, the thatched roof was made. Since the early Geometric period (875 BC), this one-bedroom houses to convert one side of the horseshoe-shaped courtyard were three. BC cities of İzmir with the old Began to maintain a thick walls made of mud brick 850. From this date, the identity of the former winning the state can be said that a city of Izmir. City 'Basileus' is likely that the administration called a brain. Migrations of the layer formed behind the project and noble elders of the city. Probably around a thousand people living within the walls of the city population. Late Geometric and Subgeometrik described ceramic period (M.Ö.750-650) is perhaps the more crowded population of the peninsula exceeded 1500 people. A large part of the people living in villages surrounding the city government. In these villages, the age old Izmir fields, olive trees, vineyards, potter and mason's workshops took place. Is provided by subsistence agriculture and fishing. The structure was the most important holy city, the Temple of Athena. BC until today, the remains of this temple is the oldest preserved Dated between the years 725-700. The previous four periods (BC 1050-750), a large bit probably still worshiped the goddess Athena, but I guess at that time a small niche with a statue of the goddess of women (naiskos) was located in a. As is well known in Homer's epic Elias, Aeolian and Ionian dialects written in a language which is too complicated. For this reason, most likely a work of epic history of the world, this is very important that these two dialects spoken in the border zone was created in İzmir. Indeed, to the Hellenistic period, Homer people of İzmir 'Homeraion' have built a structure named. BRILLIANT PERIOD (650-545 BC) BC heyday of the old Izmir Will fall between the years 650-545. This period lasted about a hundred years, the period of the most powerful forms of all the Ionian civilization. During this period, under the leadership of Miletos in Egypt, Syria and Lebanon, the West coast, Propontis'te (Marmara Region), Pontus (Black Sea) colonies established by competition with mainland Greece and the Eastern Hellenic world, and about to take his place in many areas began. Common in the Mediterranean trade in this period is not satisfied with seeing tarımcılıkla Izmir. Floors of artifacts from this period, the Phoenician, Cypriot origin, sculptures and figurines, Asian or Mediterranean origin, tile front figürcükler surviving works of this international trade. BC One of the important signs of a bright period in Izmir 650 since the beginning to spread in the article. There are many presentation inscriptions of the goddess Athena Women's gifts are offered. Although not a part of the city more than the number of people are literate. Unearthed by the Temple of Athena (640-580 BC), Eastern Hellenic world, the oldest architectural monument. The oldest and most beautiful capitals in Izmir found so far. Samos, Miletus, Ephesus, BC Erythrai and column headers from Phokaia'da 6. The second half of the century (575-550 BC) is not before the date. Which is the most original architectural elements of art and the Ionian Helken type headings and the Ionian and Aeolian Lesbos kymationlar format (leaf or egg-shaped architectural ornament) doğuşlarını old Izmir Anatolian Hittite art in the light of day and largely inspired by the topics in this multi-room house owe the Hellenic World old is the oldest example of the type found in Izmir. Indeed, BC 7. Made in the second half of the century two-storey, five bedroom, a front courtyard, double megaron, the Hellenes are known for today, is the oldest multi-room house under one roof. Megara arranged side by side before him consisted of Greek houses. More 7th street and the streets of old Izmir second half of the century was the grid plan, streets and alleys stretches from north to south and from east to west, the houses usually faced south. M.Ö.5 future. Type the name of the essence of the plan, which will Hippodamos century near east, already known in this city. Flagged city plan at the earliest example of this kind of urban tissue in the Western world. Ionian civilization have been unearthed the oldest park in Izmir old paved road. The work of civil architecture in the oldest old İzmir 7th Hellenic world The beautiful stone fountain in the first half of the century. Once upon a time Yamanlar rising above the tomb of Tantalus, a good representative of Tholos-shaped monumental tombs. Tumulus tomb chamber was named Tantalus, and his plan, such as the fountain bearing the name of building types Isopata type, ie, the plan had dörtgendi and vaulted over an overlay technique. In this monumental work known as the tomb of Tantalus MÖ.520-580 on the old management in Izmir, which holds the tomb of tyrant or should basileusun. Old Izmir, pottery workshops, archeology, literature, "Orientalizing" or "Friz" style produces beautiful examples of the type known as ceramics, architectural works of the masters of mason monumental-sized sculptures and other art creations all those statuettes, and a portion of yontuyor being driven into foreign markets. As we know, BC 6. The first half of the century, western Anatolia at that time was the cultural center of the ancient world. Miletos, and all kinds of superstition, especially for the first time freed from the influence of religion, free thought was based on scientific research. Taking advantage of the rich treasures of knowledge and experience of the Eastern world, and especially the method of free-thinking Thales, Anaximenes, and Anaximandros `natural philosophers, such as' the foundations of Western civilization, legendary and still exists today. Thales is a natural event for the first time in the world, BC Traditional calculated before the occurrence of solar eclipse on May 28 585. Thus, the field of culture and science of Mesopotamia and Egypt during the 2500 years of history that had been held since the beginning of leadership, western Anatolia began. Western Anatolia Anatolia, Iranians occupied the leadership remained until the year 545. With the invasion of Iran, however, philosophers, scientists and artists, migrated to Athens, when Athens was led in the field of culture and science. Miletus, Ephesus, Izmir, such as Samos, 6 th The beginning of the century, probably in the field of thought and science was one of the leading cities. However, the former BC Izmir One of the most advanced cultural center in the period between 640-545, although it is losing its significance for later, studies had lost the same speed. Old Izmir literature, poetry, history, philosophy, and science does not exist sufficient information on its level. Architecture is concerned, an important center. IZMIR OLD'S KING OF LYDIA Pick Alyattese and Persians, Herodotus, Alyattes king of Lydia takes the former refers to İzmir. BC Excavations in this event Dated to 500 rows. Although the city and destroyed the temple of Athena BC Izmir They rebuilt the temple in 590. 6 Later, by the Persians Seized by mid-century city. That incident has completed the transfer of brilliant. After this date, no gift is a gift not found in the temple of Athena, this is one of the important indicators of damage. The period of decline (500-300 BC), Hellenistic period and Roman İZMIR (333 BC-AD 395) BC Temple of Athena Terkedilmişse held in 545 settlements continued for a while but after that, up to 200 years old Izmir lost the importance and function. BC 5. where a settlement is small, but rich flagged century BC Mound 5. At the end of the century, and especially 4 During the intense has been the scene of a century inhabited. During this period, the middle one of the largest courtyards 5, 8, and the other 15 rooms, including one of the three houses have been unearthed. Of these, which manages the city of Larissa, and probably are close to complying with the effect of periods as in Persia, the gentlemen to belong to a tyrant comes to mind. Indeed, the graves of important people Yamanlar Mountain is still partially preserved and properly should be a few 4 krepisli tumulus century supports this idea. The large central courtyard, small houses, three houses were rectangular ruining many others megaron. 4 all the top level of the Flags mound century. is lined with houses along the said. 4 It is apparent that the invasion of the Persians in Anatolia century led to the growth of the power lost and the Ionian cities. Flagged with a population explosion that occurred a hundred-acre Mound, BC İzmir came to a small Pagos outskirts of the city of Izmir was established on 300 new. Dareios İssus'ta Alexander the Great defeated (333 BC) After the conquest of the east followed by the whole Hellenic world has reached the age of great prosperity. Towns was the scene of the population to explode. Hellenistic period, Alexandria, Rhodes, Pergamum and Ephesus, a population above 100 thousand fallen in each of the cities. Located on a small hill only a few thousand people could live within the walls of the old city of Izmir. For this reason, the latest BC Kadifekale ranks 300 in the foothills of a major new city was founded. The historian Strabo, Smyrna's own time, ie, BC 1. century, the most beautiful Ionian city states that during the transition. Pagos'un a small part of the city over that period. Gathered around the largest part of the harbor is located on flat terrain. With the main temple of the goddess in the gymnasium included on this line. It was flat and completely covered with large stones in the streets properly. Aristeidis, the city's two main east-west axis road (Holy insulation and lead to gold), and this means that the city, with the sea breeze cooled explains. Strabo speaks of the existence of a stoa called Izmir Homereion (perhaps a perystil house). In this house there was a statue of Homer. Among the structures built in the Roman Era, in Izmir, on the northwest skirt of Mount Pagos stadium in the west of both the theater and little trace remains. On the other hand the State Agora is well preserved. 120x80 meters long, had a large courtyard with a measure of the agora. There was a stoa of the east and west. Both buildings are a 7.5 m. two-storey building is. In addition, 28 m. There was a length in a basilica. BC 1. Century, the gold for the second time period begins to live in Izmir which was dominated by the Romans. The Bible is the "Seven Churches" where one of them plays an important role in the development of Christianity in Smyrna. The author of the first archbishop of Izmir and the Bible, the apostle St. St.Polycarp. John is one of the first disciples. About A.D. Anatolia, was born in 70. St. 155 Polycarp on February 23 because of his belief, the stadium is located on the Acropolis of Izmir by the Romans, was sentenced to death by burning. A.D. In 395 the Roman Empire divided into two, Izmir is a part of the Eastern Roman Empire known as Byzantium. The Byzantine period, Arabs, Seljuks, Crusaders and Genoese fight each other to seize the city. In 672 the Arabs first zaptedip city of Istanbul in the sea, use it as a base for raids. Turks in the 11th Izmir for the first time Kutalmışoğlu century, under the command of Suleiman Shah conquered. Then the Genoese city inspections until being dealt Aydin Bey amounts Umur Commandments. In 1344 the Genoese St. Peter seized the castle again. While holding down the city controls the control of the Genoese city Umur Bey tutar.14.yüzyılın up and down the middle of the city castle is captured by the Knights of Rhodes. 15. at the beginning of the century the Mongols invade the city, destroyed the Castle of St. Peter in eder.1422 II. The city becomes a part of the Ottoman Empire Murat zapteder and Izmir. After the Ottoman Empire to the rights given to foreigners in 1620 in Izmir is one of the most important trade centers of the empire. 18. and 19 centuries, the city of French, British, Dutch and Italian merchants, is the favorite. The Ottoman Empire, the city of Izmir, which is a multinational trading I. After World War II May 15, 1919 are occupied by the Greek army. In this occupation ends on September 9, 1922. However, perhaps the greatest catastrophes in the history of Izmir on the morning of September 13 to live in one of salvation. 2.600.000metrekarelik Basmane fire began in an area of ​​the district, more than 20,000 homes and businesses destroys. This fire has destroyed three-quarters of the city, unfortunately. But with the newly founded Turkish Republic of its own ashes like a phoenix in Izmir reborn emeralds.

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